The ISG is a technical group of the International Society of Biomechanics, and aims to enhance shoulder research by creating a platform for discussion and the exchange of information, software and data.

Inman VT, Saunders JBDM & Abbot LC. Observations on the function of the shoulder joint. Journal of Bone Joint Surg 26:1-30, 1944

Famous but lengthy paper on the shoulder, covering comparative anatomy, muscle function in elevation, a brief mechanical analysis and case studies.

Paper available here.

Arm Reachable Workspace Software

Nives Klopčar has kindly made her Arm Reachable Workspace (ARW) software available for download.

ARW is a computer aided tool that enables understandable, uniform and objective patient arm functionality evaluation during upper extremity treatment. Input data to the ARW program are subject height, shoulder ranges of motion (flexion, retroflexion, abduction, adduction, external and internal rotation) and elbow flexion range.

ARW program gives numerical and graphical results. Therefore, based on arm reachable workspace volume, graphics and orientation with respect to the body, the therapist can observe patient improvement, evaluate recovery, predict the arm functionality for normal life or work, and also objectively compare different patients.

Download software (~19MB)

See her website for more information, including how to cite the work if you use it.

Fick AE & Weber E (1877) Anatomisch-mechanische Studie ueber die Schultermuskeln II. Verhandl. Würz. Phys. Med. Ges., 11:257-29

Follow-up of the first, more general, paper in which results for each muscle are discussed.
Paper available here

Fick AE & Weber E (1877) Anatomisch-mechanische Studie ueber die Schultermuskeln I. Verhandl. Würz. Phys. Med. Ges., 11:123-153

Description (in German) of the method to estimate moment arms of shoulder muscles in 3-D. The analysis is worked out for two different arm positions. This paper is one of the first papers where the relationship between angle changes and length changes was used.
Paper available here

Historic Publications Category added

A category for Historic Publications has been added. If you want something added to this, send us a pdf and we'll put it on the site.

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